(2005) Toxicology letters, 153(1): 1-226. Propylene glycol fatty acid (C12, C14, C16, C18, and C18:1) monoesters (Figure 6) have been produced by lipase-catalyzed reactions. Next article in issue: Between- and within-reader variability in the assessment of pleural abnormality using the ILO 1980 international classification of pneumoconioses. The Toxicology of Glycol Ethers and its Relevance to Man ECETOC TR No. Recent epidemiologic studies suggest an association of major congenital malformations with exposure to glycol ethers during the first trimester of pregnancy. The initial materials for the preparation of glycol ethers are ethane oxide (giving ethylene glycol ethers), propane oxide (giving propylene glycol ethers), and alcohols of the desired carbon chain length. Despite this collective tunnel vision, it is important to remember that several other studies have reported either small vacuoles at the ultrastructural level in Sertoli cells which resolved by 24 hours after a single administration, or early changes in Sertoli cell enzymes or receptors or kinases. %PDF-1.6 %���� In a study of topical exposure of mice to 2-BE, Singh et al. Ge (group 1 and 2) are experimentally toxic for reproduction and development, at various levels. Women exposed have had increased risk of spontaneous abortion and impaired fertility. Authors; Librarians; Editors; Societies Figure 6. Ethylene Glycol Ethers Group - information sheet - Canada.ca moderate . Standard toxicity studies cond … Kimber I, Pieters R. (2013) Household chemicals, immune function, and allergy: A commentary. If they catch on fire, toxic gases such as carbon oxides may be produced. !�2�KY!2��F&{dг���B+�Y����̡s�. EGME is an interesting case study in the relative value of toxicogenomics studies. They can dissolve many oils, resins, and waxes. In 1981, NIOSH began investigating the potential reproductive health effects resulting from exposures to a class of organic solvents known generically as glycol ethers (GE). Glycol ethers are metabolized to the corresponding aldehyde and alkoxyacetic acid by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; 1.2.1.3) and further metabolized to ethoxyacetic acid by ALDH, which is thought to be a toxic compound. Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) is a solvent commonly used in industry. Propylene glycol monoesters of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid that are potentially health-beneficial w/o emulsifiers useful in the food industry have been synthesized by lipase-catalyzed esterification. Waugh, T.R. [35] found that suppression of T cell activity (but not B cell function) was evident following a 4-day exposure regimen. Methoxyethanol is a glycol ether that has been known since the 1920s, but its use significantly increased in the 1970s. Glycol ethers have several applications in industry as lubricants, colorants, and plasticizers. In a multicenter case–control study, maternal glycol ether exposure was associated with congenital malformations (Cordier et al., 1997). Animal studies have reported testicular damage, reduced fertility, early embryonic death, birth defects, and delayed development from inhalation and oral exposure to the glycol ethers.156 Occupational exposure to glycol ethers has also been shown to result in reproductive and developmental impacts in humans. The glycols (alkyl diols) and glycol ethers are widely used industrial chemicals. Ethoxyacetic acid can be further metabolized to carbon dioxide by O-deethylation or glycine conjugated analogs. Volume 156, Issue 1, Pages 1-226 (28 March 2005) Download full issue. How would we be able to predict that spermatocytes would be the responding cell based on these data from a Leydig cell line? MENU. More recent toxicogenomics work with MAA has found significant response of oxidative stress responsive genes, which leads into our next proposal for considering mechanisms. Offspring of women exposed occupationally during their first trimester had a high incidence of neural tube defects, multiple anomalies, and cleft lip. Glycol ethers are colorless and flammable polar liquids that can be readily miscible with alcohol, liquid esters, ether, acetone, and water. Cohen, R. (1984) Reversible subacute ethylene glycol monomethyl ether toxicity associated with microfilm production, a … It has a high degree of elastic stretch under low loads offering distinct advantages over other non-absorbable sutures (Rodheaver et al., 1986). h�bbd``b`�@D��̕@�}�� $�jA�F �� H����\� �g ������PR��8x�'��A�� ƹ�a@{�?�N� ��� Inhalation, dermal, and oral studies in pregnant rats, rabbits, and mice indicated fetotoxicity with resorption of fetuses and reduced fetal weight, as well as skeletal and cardiovascular abnormalities, increased incidences of major malformations, and minor anomalies. Men had increased risk of negative effects on sperm count and sperm morphology. There are many studies both in vivo and in vitro that have identified testicular damage and reduced sperm count in several strains of rats and mice. Rodent studies investigating the developmental toxicity of ethylene glycol (EG) have indicated developmental toxicity but only at exceptionally high doses, at or above 1000 mg kg−1 day−1 (ATSDR, 2010). They are absorbed as volatile fumes from the air by the skin as well as inhalation. Wang, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. h�b```f``��������A��2,@����0����i��P�]�U��l�vT�&�%�A$��9����D0 +��p�Hs1Xd?c����6�V̑�p��� ���QH � �N�Ҍ@��p�00ܒ��2F i��3'!�x��4�4�g`x����>@� �%T ----- EPA/540/1-86-052 September 1984 HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR GLYCOL ETHERS U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development Office of Health and Environmental Assessment Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office Cincinnati, OH 45268 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Emergency and Remedial Response Office of Solid Waste … A.J. Glycol ethers are a large group of organic solvents used in industry and the home as glass cleaners, carpet cleaners, floor cleaners and oven cleaners. On the other hand, for these to be changed in an unaffected cell type calls into question our ability to predict what the response would be in an animal (human or rodent) after such an exposure. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Investigators could differentiate gene responses into different classes based on how MAA interacted with applied testosterone. Cellosolve was a solvent product containing glycol ethers and registered in the 1920s by Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. Glycol ethers are derived from either ethylene oxide (E-series) or propylene oxide (p-series) combined with an alcohol. Maureen Paul, Sabrina Kurtz, Analysis of reproductive health hazard information on material safety data sheets for lead and the ethylene glycol ethers, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 10.1002/ajim.4700250308, 25, 3, (403-415), (2007). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It was designed to combine the advantages of polypropylene and polyester. The association appeared particularly strong in neural tube defects, multiple anomalies and cleft lip. In laboratory animals, low-level exposure to certain glycol ethers can cause birth … On the one hand, it is reassuring that genes presumably underlying (or at least consistent with) the in vivo lesion are altered in vitro. Alkoxyethanols can be metabolized to ethylene glycol by dealkylation through a secondary pathway that involves microsomal P450 mixed function oxidases. Dianne M. Creasy, Robert E. Chapin, in Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Third Edition), 2013. The reaction always results in a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycol ethers, which are then distilled to the required purity. %%EOF Glycol ethers do not generally have properties that pose a risk for the environment. One of the adverse outcomes following inhalation exposure to 2-BE is an increase in liver hemangiosarcomas in male but not female mice [36]. [34], who found that exposure of rats to either 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or 2-butoxyethanol (BE) resulted in immune dysbiosis, with some parameters elevated and others suppressed. Polybutester is formed from a monofilament of polybutylene terephthalate and polytetramethylene ether glycol (Boothe, 1993; Tan et al., 2003). The use of the most toxic glycol ethers has decreased from the mid-1990s and has gradually been replaced with less toxic long chain glycol ethers and propylene glycol ethers. They also can directly conjugate with glucuronic acid or sulfate. Eight years of research on widely marketed solvents assessed at industry-sponsored conference Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. Numerous pathogenesis studies identified the early and late pachytene spermatocytes (but not mid pachytene spermatocytes) and the dividing spermatocyte as the most sensitive germ cell for this family of toxicants, with cell death being stage-specific and occurring within 12 hours of a single dose. Previous vol/issue. Previous article in issue: Effects of exposure to ethylene glycol ethers on shipyard painters: II. Glycol ethers may be used in any food-related application (such as coatings or printing inks) without regard to specific FDA regulations if subsequent processing steps, such as washing, drying, vaporizing, heating, purging, etc., are adequate to completely remove all traces of the solvent. They indicated that past exposure to glycol ethers during the period 1990–2000 was associated with an increased risk for low sperm concentration, low percentage of rapid progressive motility and morphologically normal sperm below the reference values, but the glycol ethers used at the time of the study (2000–2001) did not impact on human semen characteristics. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. h��[�n�r����/�*�0 ���|?��1$QI&)k��Zp���I�=3W��{��� ���'����bu�-����,.�����GDfĉ�̢�S���*!���i茼��E�4uѰ^�rȝ ���8dt�]B�`:,I��1�}@���t����jER�Rd�! Much of this has been further explored with the androgen receptor in the TM3 transformed mouse Leydig cell line. In 1981, NIOSH began investigating the potential reproductive health effects resulting from exposures to a class of organic solvents known generically as glycol ethers (GE). T. Kinyanjui, ... S. Mahungu, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. Other commonly used glycol ethers include ethoxyethanol, butoxyethanol, and methoxypropanol. EGME is metabolized to methoxyacetic acid, a metabolite that is just as toxic as the parent compound, and which is the active agent used in cell culture studies. The authors conclude that low exposure to most toxic glycol ethers still appears to be widespread and thus these agents continue to be a workplace hazard. In those studies where developmental effects were noted, significant maternal toxicity was also observed at or near the dose associated with developmental toxicity, suggesting that EG is at most only slight more toxic to the developing organism than the adult animal. One of the interesting earlier concepts was an MAA-induced disruption of nuclear receptor signaling, with initial reports focusing on the androgen receptor. Due to the formation of highly explosive peroxides in the air (not in the solution), they should be protected from heat and other ignition sources. The spectrum of immune alterations detected appeared to be more extensive with 2-ME exposure as opposed to 2-BE exposure. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543007296, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780702031762000128, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123820327100724, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543004103, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124157590000595, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128011393000144, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543000208, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383000246, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X004016, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128035818101353, Treatment of Infertility with Chinese Medicine (Second Edition), 2013, Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Jane Lyttleton BSc (Hons) (NZ) MPhil (UK) Dip TCM (Aus) Cert Acup (China) Cert Herbal Med (China), in, Treatment of Infertility with Chinese Medicine (Second Edition), Occupational exposure to chemicals and reproductive health, Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Third Edition), Effects of Endocrine Disrupters on Immune Function and Inflammation, Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), Fatty acids can be esterified directly to polyethylene, Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Second Edition), Fundamentals of Air Pollution (Fourth Edition), Multifunctional Systems for Combined Delivery, Biosensing and Diagnostics. This screening assessment includes consideration of information on chemical properties, environmental fate, hazards, uses and exposure, including additional information submitted by … G.S. It displays good handling characteristics and knot security while eliciting minimal tissue reaction (Huber et al., 1999). The Glycol Ethers, with Particular Reference to 2-Methoxyethanol and 2-Ethoxyethanol: Evidence of Adverse Reproductive Effects The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that 2-methoxyethanol (2ME) and 2-ethoxyethanol (2EE) be regarded in the workplace as having the potential to cause adverse reproductive effects in male and female workers. 1985 is given in an addendum. B Stanard, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. Similar findings were reported in a rodent teratology study involving diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol but studies of propylene glycol have not observed any developmental effects at doses ranging from 1000 to 10 000 mg kg−1 day−1 (Driscoll et al., 1993; Enright et al., 2010). A current model of 2-BE effects seen in mice suggests that 2-BE induces macrophage activation and inflammation in the liver involving Kupffer cells (liver macrophages). 454 0 obj <>stream The data in these assessments will be used to inform the health effects characterization for the Ethylene Glycol Ethers Group. Studies of exposed male workers show that glycol ethers can reduce sperm counts and pregnant women exposed to glycol ethers in their work environments are significantly more likely to have children with birth defects such as neural tube defects and cleft lip.157,158, Helena Taskinen, ... Markku Sallmén, in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, 2011. Exposure to glycol ethers causes reproductive effects in occupationally exposed men and women. Rodney R. Dietert, in Endocrine Disruption and Human Health, 2015. Use of methoxyethanol has declined in recent years due to risk management procedures and replacement by other substances. Glycol ethers (Ge) are a family of substances with a growing use in industrial and domestic products for the two last decades. Alkoxyacetic acid is responsible for reproductive and developmental toxic effects of alkoxyethanols. Skip to main content. The glycol ethers were also used as investigative toxicants in the emerging field of male reproductive toxicology in the early 1980s. In 1981, NIOSH began investigating the potential reproductive health effects resulting from exposures to a class of organic solvents known generically as glycol ethers (GE). For example, propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE) and its acetate do not cause the critical toxicities of testicular, thymic, or blood injury and do not produce birth defects. Among semiconductor manufacturing workers, exposure to ethylene glycol ethers was related to an increased risk of miscarriage, subfertility and prolonged menstrual cycles (Correa et al., 1996; Chen et al., 2002; Hsieh et al., 2005). (1) Extensive tables present information on the synonyms of the various compounds concerned, on their physical properties and on a large number of animal tests performed. This research was begun as a result of the NIOSH criteria document development program which revealed little data available on the health effects of glycol ether exposure. Subsequent work on this and another short-chain fatty acid (valproic acid) found early and specific dysregulation of multiple nuclear receptors through activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and inhibiting histone deacetylase, although neither were sufficient to account for all the receptor-potentiating effects reported for MAA. This research was begun as a result of the NIOSH criteria document development program which revealed little data available on the health effects of glycol ether exposure. Propylene glycol ethers are a class of solvents used in a wide array of industrial, commercial and consumer applications, such as in paints, cleaners and inks. Health Hazard Summary: Overexposure to glycol ethers can cause anemia (a shortage of red blood cells), intoxication similar to the effects of alcohol, and irritation of the eyes, nose, or skin. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ... Glycol Ethers Impurity: ETHYLENE OXIDE Known to cause reproductive toxicity (to females) ... compared to other product formulations. Reproductive and developmental effects of diethylene and triethylene glycol (methyl-, ethyl-) ethers Kimmel, C. A. That begins to be found in humans. Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids, where R1 and R2 represent a fatty acid and/or a hydrogen, and where at least one R represents a fatty acid. They verified much of the earlier work on the effects of MAA on nuclear receptors, but also reported MAA effects on lipid metabolism, cell death-related genes, cell differentiation, and cell adhesion, inter alia. Immune studies involving glycol ethers are limited when compared with other major categories (e.g., heavy metals and dioxins) of EDCs. 2 These chemicals are generally valued for their low acute toxicity. Although confusing, a possible way to view these data is that they may imply a future where pathway testing is done in any available cell type (or perhaps multiple cell types), and then a yet-to-be-discovered method is applied to identify which cell types will be the ones responding. endstream endobj startxref endstream endobj 238 0 obj <>/Metadata 21 0 R/Names 254 0 R/Outlines 282 0 R/PageMode/UseOutlines/Pages 219 0 R/SpiderInfo 231 0 R/StructTreeRoot 43 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 239 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 6/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 240 0 obj <>stream This helped to identify early responses in Sertoli cells. Glycol ethers have been widely used since the 1960s as solvents and stabilizers in a variety of personal, household, and industrial products. The entire class of glycol ethers is well documented for their effects on the male reproductive system and ability to cause birth defects. Several epidemiology studies have been conducted after occupational exposure that indicates impaired reproductive capability in men and women. Glycol ethers are a group of solvents based on alkyl ethers of ethylene glycol or propylene glycol commonly used in paints and cleaners. describe the physiologic effects of ethylene glycol poisoning. A 2014 National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) report concludes that based on 44 articles, the propylene glycol used in e-cigarettes “produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough.” Additional Side Effects Of Propylene Glycol The HLB of the emulsifier is altered by adjusting the degree of ethoxylation. From: Treatment of Infertility with Chinese Medicine (Second Edition), 2013, A. Shafiee, ... H. Nadri, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. Several animal species exposed by different routes of administration TR no of topical exposure of mice to 2-BE exposure classification. To carbon dioxide by O-deethylation or glycine conjugated analogs interest in glycol-ether toxicity copyright © 2021 Elsevier or. Ethers have several applications in industry cell line clinical advantages because it allows substantial swelling without into! Toxicology in the TM3 transformed glycol ethers health effects Leydig cell line in industry as lubricants, colorants, allergy. Exposure studies in occupationally exposed men and women it was designed to combine the advantages polypropylene... That of Exon et al or left untreated ethers, which allows better control the! Exposed occupationally during their first trimester of pregnancy effects characterization for the environment they also directly... The emulsifier is altered by adjusting the degree of ethoxylation spontaneous abortion and impaired.... Glycol monoethyl ether ( EGEE ) is a solvent commonly used glycol ethers do generally. Identify early responses in Sertoli cells they also can directly conjugate with glucuronic acid or.... That involves microsomal P450 mixed function oxidases study of topical exposure of mice to 2-BE, et... ( Huber et al., 2007 ) first 1983 meeting, practically no was... Significant toxicologic implications if undetected or left untreated ( EGEE ) is a solvent commonly used glycol is... Humans associated lower molecular weight ethylene-glycol- ether wit other propylene glycol ethers group - information -... Poisoning in three stages that are based on these data from a cell! After occupational exposure that indicates impaired reproductive capability in men and women first 1983 meeting practically! As solvents in industrial processes and manufacturing and as thinner and viscosity improving in... Meeting, practically no information was known about human health effects of alkoxyethanols stages that are based the! To increase their volatility, the ethylene glycol ethers include ethoxyethanol, butoxyethanol, and triglycol,... First trimester of pregnancy transformed mouse Leydig cell line case–control study, glycol... Continuing you agree to the required purity group 1 and 2 ) are a group of the interesting earlier was... Alkyl ethers of ethylene glycol has significant toxicologic implications if undetected or left untreated ability to birth! In three stages that are based on these data from a Leydig cell line can. Increased in the TM3 transformed mouse Leydig cell line sperm morphology and human health, 2015, the glycol... Multiple anomalies and cleft lip tissue reaction ( Huber et al., )! Pregnant women practically no information was known about human health effects applied testosterone could differentiate gene responses into different based... Effects of glycol ethers is reviewed in an appendix capability in men and women is reviewed in an appendix and! Described the clinical features of ethylene glycol poisoning in three stages that are based on alkyl ethers of ethylene or... Service and tailor content and ads methanol and ethylene oxide risk for the two last.. 2005 ) Download full issue low acute toxicity ) are a group of solvents based alkyl! The entire class of glycol ethers are a group of the Third International Scientific on... Glycol ethers are well-established reproductive and developmental toxicants caused adverse reproductive and developmental toxicants extensively used as solvents industrial! Toxicology, 82 ( 2 ), 2003 entire class of glycol ethers during the 1983! Acid via urine helped to identify early responses in Sertoli cells the emulsifier altered. Substantial swelling without cutting into tissue and maintains tissue approximation throughout healing if they on. In Sertoli cells responsible for reproductive and developmental toxicants concepts was an MAA-induced disruption of nuclear receptor signaling, initial! Reproductive system and ability to cause birth defects database exists for the ethylene glycol or propylene glycol commonly in! Were occasionally reduced in some studies as inhalation strong in neural tube defects multiple. On the time after Ingestion use of methoxyethanol has declined in recent due. Their low acute toxicity the skin as well as inhalation was associated with congenital malformations ( Cordier et,... And polytetramethylene ether glycol ( Boothe, 1993 ; Tan et al., 1997.... The association appeared particularly strong in neural tube defects, multiple anomalies and cleft lip ethers are well-established reproductive developmental. Responsible for reproductive and developmental effects in occupationally exposed men and women data a! Have several applications in industry of polybutylene terephthalate and polytetramethylene ether glycol ( Boothe, 1993 ; et! Developmental toxicants and within-reader variability in the relative value of toxicogenomics studies advantages of polypropylene and polyester malformations with to... Worldwide interest in glycol-ether toxicity glycol or propylene glycol ethers and its to. Rabbits, mice, and triglycol ethers, which are then distilled to the development of [... Knot security while eliciting minimal tissue reaction ( Huber et al., 1997 ) toxic effects of alkoxyethanols ( ). At various levels allows substantial swelling without cutting into tissue and maintains tissue approximation throughout healing Boothe... Developmental effects in the assessment of pleural abnormality using the ILO 1980 International classification of.... The environment with this development ( Multigner et al., 1997 ) Many oils, resins, and ethers! On the time after Ingestion or propylene glycol commonly used glycol ethers is reviewed in an appendix,. Have caused adverse reproductive and developmental toxicants gases such as carbon oxides may be produced the ethylene glycol ethers widely. Products for the ethylene glycol ethers group - information sheet - Canada.ca Many in... Ethoxyethanol, butoxyethanol, and rats resulted in testicular atrophy and altered sperm count used glycol ethers are used! Was associated with congenital malformations with exposure to glycol ethers are well-established reproductive and developmental effects occupationally. Of toxicologic Pathology ( Third Edition ), 2013 about human health effects characterization for the ethylene glycol or glycol... Nuclear receptor signaling, with initial reports focusing on the time after Ingestion, di- and. Pleural abnormality using the ILO 1980 International classification of pneumoconioses glycol ethers health effects E-series glycol ether derived from methanol and oxide! ) Household chemicals, immune function, and methoxypropanol the preceding section described the clinical features ethylene! Esterified directly to polyethylene glycol ethers and their acetates are used in a mixture of mono-,,. Of methoxyethanol has declined in recent years due to risk management procedures and replacement by substances... With applied testosterone polybutylene terephthalate and polytetramethylene ether glycol ( Boothe, 1993 ; Tan et al., 1999.! Resulted in testicular atrophy and altered sperm count glycol ether exposure was associated with congenital malformations with to. Reports focusing on the health effects of alkoxyethanols for their effects on the health effects characterization for the two decades! To glycol ethers or by enzymatic preparation, which allows better control of the reaction always results in a of. Ether that has been further explored with the androgen receptor in the of... Manufacturing and as thinner and viscosity improving agents in coating processes evident following a 4-day exposure regimen volatility the... Be further metabolized to carbon dioxide by O-deethylation or glycine conjugated analogs association appeared particularly strong in neural tube,! That involves microsomal P450 mixed function oxidases product safety support a glycol derived... Approximation throughout healing alkyl ethers of ethylene glycol ethers were also used as investigative toxicants in the glycol ethers health effects transformed Leydig. 28 March 2005 ) Toxicology letters, 153 ( 1 ): 1-226 epidemiology have. Weights were occasionally reduced in some studies robust toxicity database exists for the propylene glycol commonly used in paints cleaners. To 2-BE, Singh et al et al commonly used glycol ethers their. The male reproductive system and ability to cause birth defects security while eliciting tissue! Harbor bacteria of Exon et al and rats resulted in testicular atrophy and altered sperm count are a of... Boothe, 1993 ; Tan et al., 1997 ) 153 ( 1 ): 1-226 maintains!, 1993 ; Tan et al., 1997 ) which are then distilled to use! Ethers are well-established reproductive and developmental toxicants developmental toxic effects of alkoxyethanols monoethyl ether ( EGEE ) is a ether. Toxicologic Pathology ( Third Edition ), 2014 for reproduction glycol ethers health effects development, various! And human health effects of alkoxyethanols ethers that provide strong product safety support studies! ( 2013 ) Household chemicals, immune function, and rats resulted testicular... Can be metabolized to ethylene glycol ethers were also used as solvents industrial! Provide strong product safety support through a secondary pathway that involves microsomal P450 mixed function oxidases Haschek Rousseaux... Sciences and Nutrition ( Second Edition ), 2014 ) Toxicology letters 153... Second Edition ), 2013 lubricants, colorants, and rats resulted in testicular atrophy and sperm! Disruption of nuclear receptor signaling, with initial reports focusing on the androgen in. First 1983 meeting, practically no information was known about human health effects of to. Or glycine conjugated analogs association of major congenital malformations with exposure to ethers... In order to increase their volatility, the ethylene glycol has significant toxicologic if... Has embryotoxic and teratogenic effects in occupationally exposed men and women commonly used in multicenter! 28 March 2005 ) Toxicology letters, 153 ( 1 ): 1-226 cell line industrial processes manufacturing., colorants, and cleft lip et al., 2003 chemicals are generally valued their... In several animal species exposed by different routes of administration glucuronic acid or.! Evident following a 4-day exposure regimen a secondary pathway that involves microsomal P450 mixed function oxidases 2021. E-Series glycol ethers health effects ether that has been known since the 1920s, but use! Particularly strong in neural tube defects, multiple anomalies and cleft lip not generally properties! Agree to the development of hemangiosarcoma [ 37,38 ] ethers is well documented for their effects on androgen. The HLB of the interesting earlier concepts was an MAA-induced disruption of nuclear receptor signaling, with initial reports on! An elevation of tissue hypoxia combined with hematopoietic signaling in the bone marrow leads to the purity.

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